Saturday, 25 March 2017

How the human ears work

It is in the cochlea that the vibrations transmitted from the eardrum through the tiny bones are converted into electrical impulses sent along the auditory nerve to the brain. The inner ear, which is surrounded by bone, also contains semicircular canals, which function more for purposes of equilibrium than hearing. The three parts of the ear anatomy are the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The inner ear is also called the cochlea. (‘Cochlea’ means ‘snail’ in Latin; the cochlea gets its name from its distinctive coiled up shape.)

The outer ear consists of the pinna, ear canal and eardrum
The middle ear consists of the ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) and ear drum
The inner ear consists of the cochlea, the auditory (hearing) nerve and the brain
Sound waves enter the ear canal and make the ear drum vibrate. This action moves the tiny chain of bones (ossicles – malleus, incus, stapes) in the middle ear. The last bone in this chain ‘knocks’ on the membrane window of the cochlea and makes the fluid in the cochlea move. The fluid movement then triggers a response in the hearing nerve.

Information from:
https://www.hearinglink.org/your-hearing/how-the-ear-works/
http://www.indiana.edu/~emusic/acoustics/ear.htm
Image from: https://www.hearinglink.org/your-hearing/how-the-ear-works/

Wednesday, 15 March 2017

Continuity for makeup

Continuity ensures everything is seamless appearing together in a movie or tv show. Makeup consultations are for continuity it is also important for matters such as allergies, makeup plans, and makeup tests. Makeup needs to be consistent every day as many movies/tv shows are filmed over long periods of time. There is at least one person employed on a set for overall continuity but each department is also responsible for their own continuity, such as the makeup department must take care of makeup continuity and the sound department ensure all sound continuity etc. For the makeup department and the costume department, they will run on set in-between takes to ensure everything is correct so if some lipstick has rubbed off a bit they will refill in the color or if one hand was in a pocket a moment ago in the scene the same hand must go in the same pocket again.

Sometimes the client isn't always the one being consulted. Designers for shows or directors can be consulted on how they want certain looks/characters to be. Sometimes these consultations can be often over the course of filming so months or years. So continuity books are always kept.
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All information and facts from Sarah Hobson of Hugh Baird university.

Wednesday, 1 March 2017

Human blood

Functions of blood. It supplies oxygen to cells and tissues. It supplies essential nutrients to cells, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. It removes carbon dioxide, urea and lactic acid (waste products) Its white blood cells have antibodies which defend us from infection and foreign bodies. Scientists estimate the volume of blood in a human body to be approximately 7 percent of body weight. An average adult body with a weight of 150 to 180 pounds will contain approximately 4.7 to 5.5 liters (1.2 to 1.5 gallons) of blood. Each red blood cell is about 1/3 hemoglobin, by volume. Plasma is about 92% water, with plasma proteins as the most abundant solutes. The main plasma protein groups are albumins, globulins, and fibrinogens. The primary blood gasses are oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Blood makes up about 8% of the human body weight. Blood consist of cellular material 99% red blood cells, with white blood cells and platelets making up the remainder.

Information from:
 https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/the-blood
https://www.thoughtco.com/volume-chemical-composition-of-blood-601962
http://wonderopolis.org/wonder/how-much-blood-is-in-your-body
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/196001.php

Image from: http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/human-blood/images/22466864/title/blood-photo

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